Learning outcomes

Learning outcomes

Learning outcomes are defined as statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand and/or be able to demonstrate after completion of a process of learning.

In general, learning outcomes describe evidence of learning in three groups; knowledge, skills and general competence.

The categories describing learning outcomes include:

  • Knowledge: Understanding of theories, facts, principles, procedures in subject areas and/or occupations.
  • Skills: Ability to utilise knowledge to solve problems or tasks (cognitive, practical, creative and communication skills).
  • General competence: Ability to utilise knowledge and skills in an independent manner in different situations.

Definining learning outcomes

International trends in education show a shift from the traditional teacher-centred approach to a student-centred approach, i.e. the focus is not only on teaching but also on what the students are expected to be able to do at the end of the module or programme. Statements called learning outcomes are used to express what the students are expected to achieve and how they are expected to demonstrate that achievement.

Learning outcomes are defined as statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand and/or be able to demonstrate after completion of a process of learning. In general, learning outcomes describe evidence of learning in three groups; knowledge, skills and general competence.

  • Knowledge: Understanding of theories, facts, principles, procedures in subject areas and/or occupations.
  • Skills: Ability to utilise knowledge to solve problems or tasks (cognitive, practical, creative and communication skills).
  • General competence: Ability to utilise knowledge and skills in an independent manner in different situations.

Examples of defined learning outcomes

The candidate should on successfully completing the course, be able to:

Knowledge

  • critically evaluate identification strategies in research papers
  • critically reflect on the advantages and disadvantages of trading in a high frequency world
  • discuss inferential issues with dependent data
  • identify the frontier in disclosure and international accounting research
  • discuss how diffusion theory can be applied in management accounting research

Skills

  • analyse and evaluate potential dynamic and stochastic effects on economic quantities and resources depending on policy choices
  • formulate and manage operational management tasks evolving in time
  • critically analyse published material on uncertainty in planning
  • use statistical information to reduce uncertainty in a decision problem
  • apply information-based microstructure models
  • analyze and design research projects such as earnings management or value relevance research
  • set up qualitative research designs and chose appropriate methods to answer their research questions.
  • calculate standard estimators and corresponding standard errors.
  • calculate standard estimators and corresponding standard errors.
  • use standard software to estimate standard models on real world data

General competence

  • explain current findings in the relationship between performance and the design and use of management accounting systems
  • provide ethical justifications for one’s research design
  • reflexively discuss the soicail practise of science in light of his og her own scientific tradition
  • communicate the research question, solution method and answer in a clear-cut manner

Learning outcomes ill.-bilde

Learning outcomes guidelines

The following guidelines may be of assistance when writing Learning Outcomes:

  • It is recommended to have five to ten learning outcomes.
  • The learning outcomes should be grouped and include learning outcomes within one or more of the above mentioned categories (knowledge, skills and general competence)
  • Begin each learning outcome with an active verb, followed by the object of the verb followed by a phrase that gives the context. Use only one verb per learning outcome. For example: Distinguish between, analyse, assemble, identify, solve, apply, evaluate, formulate, differentiate, construct, critisise, challenge, discuss, discriminate, develop, assess, manage, master, recognise etc.
  • Avoid vague terms like know, understand, learn, be familiar with, be exposed to, be acquainted with, and be aware of.
  • The learning outcomes must be observable and measurable.
  • Avoid complicated sentences. If necessary use more than one sentence to ensure clarity.
  • Ensure that the learning outcomes of the course relate to the overall outcomes of the programme
  • Ensure that the learning outcomes are capable of being assessed. As you work on writing the learning outcomes, bear in mind how these outcomes will be assessed. How will you know if the student has achieved these learning outcomes? This may be done with the aid of a grid to assist in checking that the learning outcomes map on to the teaching and learning activities as well as to the mode of assessment. If the learning outcomes are very broad, they may be difficult to assess effectively. If the learning outcomes are very narrow, the list of learning outcomes may be too long and detailed.
  • Bear in mind the timescale within which the outcomes are to be achieved. There is always the danger that one can be over ambitious when writing learning outcomes. Ask yourself if it is realistic to achieve the learning outcomes within the time and resources available.
  • When writing learning outcomes, try to avoid overloading the list with learning outcomes on knowledge.
  • Before finalising the learning outcomes, ask your colleagues and possibly former students if the learning outcomes make sense to them.