If you are going to use other people's material, you must ask the originator for permission or have a legal authority, normally including payment.
The copyright act
Copyright in Norway is normally regulated by the Copyright Act:
- The originator of the work has the copyright.
- The copyright protects the design of the work, but not its content, ideas, knowledge or methods.
- The copyright arise when the work is created. Registering or copyright-branding is not needed.
- The originator has an eternal right to be named as the originator, and the source of the work shall be referenced.
The right to quote
A quotation is a smaller piece of a work used in a new setting. Quotations should be used in order to give critic, to create a debate or to illuminate a statement. The right to quote does not allow you to use parts of music or films in order to set a certain mood.
Only public works can be quoted. Pictures and sculptures are normally not included in the right to quote because this could easily violate the originator's ideal rights or the Copyright Act itself. Public artwork can still be used as a quotation as illustrations in critical or scientific settings without asking the copyright holder.
Special rules apply to teaching in class. Physical pieces of artwork and photography can be shown using a projector or similar, and literary work or music pieces can be performed by reading, singing or playing.
No payment should be made for using copyrighted material as a quotation.
Intellectual property organisations
There are a number of organisations working with negotiating agreements on behalf of the originators and publishers of intellectual property. Some of these organisations can enter into general agreements concerning larger subsets of intellectual property, while some only have the authority to negotiate deals on behalf of a smaller group of named originators. In cases where there are no intellectual property organisation for the given work, every single copyright holder must be contacted for a use-agreement.
The most important intellectual property organisations in Norway are:
- Kopinor (Text)
- TONO (Music)
- BONO (Pictoral art)
- Norwaco (Broadcasting)
- Gramo (Musicians, artists and record labels)
- Clara (general copyright clearance)
NHH has entered into general agreements with Kopinor and Norwaco. More information on the rights these agreements give you as a researcher or teacher can be found in the parts about text and film on this page.